Apple's next-generation macOS operating system.
Metal 2: This new graphics technology provides Mac developers with near direct access to the Mac's graphics processing units. Removing the necessity to use intermediate programming layers to control the graphics should allow developers to radically improve performance of graphics-intensive applications. Metal 2 also allows the GPUs to be used for accelerated machine learning, opening up new capabilities to programmers and their apps.
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And if your current graphics card isn't up to snuff, Metal 2 supports external graphics cards connected via Thunderbolt 3. Safari: The default web browser, Safari sees new technology being introduced, including Intelligent Tracking Prevention to protect privacy and allow you to customize how privacy is enforced in general and site-by-site. Additionally, Safari gains the ability to block auto-playing videos, a great companion feature to its current ability to block auto-playing audio.
Photos: Photos gets a number of new tools, including a persistent sidebar, editing of Live Photos, and a new Memory category for organizing your images. There's also improved facial recognition, new filters, and new editing tools for Curves and Selective Color. Original release date : September 20, The intelligent assistant is available from the Dock and the Menu Bar, and also from a keyboard shortcut. With a little work by the user, Siri can also be made to respond directly to voice commands without having to first invoke the Siri app.
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APFS wasn't turned on by default, and there were no apps other than Terminal that could be used to interact with the new file system. As a result, few Mac users knew a new modern file system was available at their fingertips. It mimics the feature found in iOS that allows the display to increase blue light as the evening progresses. The increase in blue light, along with the corresponding reduction in yellow light, is believed to aid sleep.
Optimized Storage: This new feature of the macOS allows you to use smaller drives but still have access to a large amount of data. In conjunction with iCloud Drive, Optimized Storage can move some of your local data to the cloud, allowing you to free up space on your drive. The moved data still appears to be present locally, but when you need the information, it's retrieved from your iCloud Drive.
Tabs Everywhere: Apps that include support for multiple windows gain the benefit of those windows being available from a tab bar generated by the operating system. Original release date : September 30, Multi-Touch Gestures: While the operating system has supported multi-touch gestures since the introduction of the Magic Mouse and Magic Trackpad, El Capitan brought direct support for gestures to various apps, including Mail and Messages.
Maps: The Maps app saw public transit information added to regional maps. Initial support was limited to major metropolitan centers, but additional transit maps were added with subsequent updates. Disk Utility: Disk Utility saw a major redesign of the user interface, resulting in the loss of many features, including the ability to create and support RAID arrays.
Spotlight: The Spotlight search engine saw the addition of weather, stock, news, and sports scores as searchable items. With SIP, most system files and processes could not be modified by other apps or systems, even if the user had root access.
SIP is very effective at preventing system tampering, by malware or by accident. Original release date : October 16, Continuity and Handoff: Yosemite included the ability for the operating system to integrate with iOS 8 or later devices. With the use of Handoff, a service that used Bluetooth LE and Wi-Fi, users could use their Macs to place or answer phone calls through their iPhones, as well as use their iPhones to establish hotspots, allowing their Macs to connect to their iPhone's data plan. Continuity used the same technology to allow users to work in an app on one device, say an iPad, and then pick up right where they left off in the equivalent app on their Mac.
Notifications Center: The Notifications Center added a new Today view that displayed timely updates, such as weather, stocks, and calendar events. Photos: Yosemite The original implementation of Photos lacked many of the features of iPhotos or Aperture that users had come to rely on, and was seen as a step back by many. Over time, new versions of Photos addressed many user concerns.
Dark Mode: A new system preference that darkened the menu bar and Dock in keeping with the trend in many apps to use dark backgrounds. Original release date : October 22, Changes in Mavericks concentrated on reducing power consumption and extending battery life. This allowed the CPU to always have tasks to perform when awake, and allowed CPU sleep to occur for longer periods of time. The end result was less waking from sleep, quicker overall task performance, and reduced battery use because of longer CPU sleep times.
App Nap: Before App Nap, some applications were running but not performing any useful activity; for example, waiting for user input could keep processors active, wasting power and generating heat for no real gain. App Nap could put individual apps to sleep when they weren't active, or if their windows and dialog boxes were hidden by other apps on the screen.
Original release date : July 25, Notifications Center: New with Mountain Lion, the Notifications Center provided a unified method of receiving and organizing alerts issued by applications and web services.
Notes were synced across all of a user's Apple devices. Messages: The new Messages app replaced the well-regarded iChat app that was the default instant messaging app in previous generations of OS X. Messenger and Google Talk. Game Center: Another new app making the crossover from iOS, Game Center allowed you to play against other Game Center players, keep track of scores and achievements, and follow a leader board for each game.
AirPlay Mirroring: This new feature allowed the content of your display to appear on an Apple TV device on your local network. Original release date : July 20, Launchpad: This new application launcher looked and operated like the app launcher in iOS. Because Launchpad is an app, it didn't replace the existing Dock or Applications folder; instead, it just offered another method to start up applications.
For many Mac users, the result was very confusing, as the scrolling direction was reversed. Thankfully, the system preferences allowed you to select the method you wanted to use. In addition to natural scrolling, scroll bars also became invisible when not in use. This could also be changed in the system preferences. Auto Save and Versions: New with OS X Lion, Auto Save allowed apps to automatically save documents as you were working on them; Versions allowed you to access past revisions of a document.
Address Space Layout Randomization: This security technique assigns system and app data to randomly selected locations in memory. This can help prevent malware from targeting a known location to inject itself into an app or service.
File Vault 2: Updated File Vault to offer full disk encryption instead of just user space encryption. Original release date : August 28, The Mac App Store was added with the release of Finder: The Finder was completely rewritten in Cocoa to help improve overall performance and take advantage of new technology built into the operating system. Multi-Touch Support: Snow Leopard was the first version of the OS that included complete support for multi-touch natively.
Earlier versions of Macs that had multi-touch trackpads were limited by the number of multi-touch gestures supported. AppleTalk: An early networking protocol used by Apple that is no longer supported.
Original release date : October 26, Time Machine: One of the major new features in Leopard was the first inclusion of Time Machine , a then revolutionary backup application that was easy to set up and use, and even easier to find and restore individual files when needed. Boot Camp: Although users had already been messing around with ways to run Windows on the Mac's Intel-based hardware , Boot Camp was the first official method endorsed and even encouraged by Apple. Boot Camp provided tools for partitioning a Mac's startup drive to include a Windows volume, as well as the drivers needed to allow Windows to work with the Mac's hardware.
Spaces: Allowed the creation of virtual desktops, each containing applications and windows used for specific tasks. You could create a space for working with emails and web browsing, another for gaming, and a third for productivity apps. You were only limited by how many "spaces" you could come up with. Quick Look : A built-in service that allowed documents to be quickly viewed without having to launch the applications that created them. User Interface Changes: Leopard included a number of minor user interface changes, including a 3D Dock and a transparent menu bar.
The original multi-colored Apple icon in the menu bar was replaced with an all-black version. Application Signing: Leopard was the first version of the Mac operating system that used public key signing to ensure applications had not been tampered with, or that updates were indeed really the same app and not a piece of malware masquerading as one.
macOS version history - Wikipedia
Original release date : April 29, Spotlight: This core search technology first appeared in Tiger, allowing Spotlight to be used to search all document types present on the Mac. Spotlight also introduced the concept of Smart Folders , special folders whose content was always updated based on search filters the user created.
This allowed users to create Smart Folders that would contain, for example, all the documents they worked on in the last week. The apps were known as Widgets, and were thought of as the return of Desk Accessories, a type of application that was common in the earlier Mac OS. Automator: This scripting tool allowed users to link together apps and services that resided on their Macs, letting them create complex workflow automation with an easy-to-understand graphical interface. In addition, Tiger could support bit userland addressing space, expanding the amount of memory that could be directly addressed.
Original release date : October 24, Finder: The Finder made use of a new brushed-metal interface that included a new user customizable sidebar. Additionally, the Finder included direct support for zipping and unzipping files.
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